Kastelorizo, is a Greek island and municipality located in the southeastern Mediterranean. It lies roughly 1,300 m (4,265 ft) off the south coast of Turkey, about 570 km southeast of Athens and 110 km (68 mi) east of Rhodes, almost halfway between Rhodes and Antalya and 280 km (174 mi) to Cyprus. Kastelorizo is part of the Rhodes peripheral unit.

It has gone by several different names in its history, including Kastellorizo (Greek), Castellorizo (Greek name with Italian spelling), Castelrosso (Italian), Chateau Rouge (French translation of Italian name) and Turkish: Meis, Kızılhisar[citation needed]. The meaning of its current official name Megisti (Μεγίστη) is “Biggest” or “Greatest”, but at only 11.987 km2 (5 sq mi) in area, it is the smallest of the Dodecanese. The name, however, refers to the fact that it is the largest of the small archipelago.